English architect. His large country-house practice, established about 1796 with the landscape gardener Humphry Repton, used a wide variety of styles, and by 1798 he was enjoying the patronage of the Prince of Wales (afterwards George IV). Later he laid out Regent's Park, London, and its approaches, as well as Trafalgar Square and St James's Park. Between 1811 and 1821 he planned Regent Street (later rebuilt), repaired and enlarged Buckingham Palace (for which he designed Marble Arch), and rebuilt the Royal Pavilion, Brighton, in flamboyant oriental style.
For himself he built East Cowes Castle (1798) which greatly influenced the early Gothic Revival.
Born in London, Nash was trained by Robert Taylor, and started work as a speculative builder of stucco-fronted houses. After bankruptcy in 1783, he retired to Wales where he later began to practise as an architect. He returned to London in about 1796 and his subsequent partnership with Humphry Repton lasted until about 1802. Examples of their work are Cronkhill, Shropshire (1802), and Sundridge Park. His outstanding ability as a town planner was shown by the inspired layout of Regent's Park and Regent Street in London (1811 onwards). However, the designs for the villas and terraces adjacent to the Park were marred by poor detailing, a weakness that pervades all his work. Regent Street was completed in 1825; its colonnades were later demolished in 1845 and the facades greatly changed, but the focal All Souls, Langham Place (1822-25), remains as it was.
Other works by Nash in London include Clarence House (1825), Carlton House Terrace (1827-33), the facade of the Haymarket Theatre (1821), the United Services Club, Pall Mall (1827), and the planning of Suffolk Street and Suffolk Place. His unsuccessful design for Buckingham Palace in 1825 was never completed, and upon the death of the George IV in 1830 his career came to an end.
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